Dr. Livingston Armytage

Judicial Education & Justice Reform Specialist


Dr. Livingston Armytage is a specialist in judicial education and justice reform, advising governments, courts and international development agencies on improving justice systems.  He has worked for major development agencies in more than 30 countries, from Afghanistan and Azerbaijan to Haiti, Palestine, Pakistan, and Papua New Guinea.  Livingston is author of the monograph Educating Judges (Kluwer/Brill 1996). His publications include Searching for Success in Judicial Reform (OUP, 2009), and Reforming Justice: a journey to fairness in Asia (CUP, 2012), in which he argues that justice is fundamental to human well being and development.  Over the past 50 years, development agencies have spent billions of dollars supporting legal and judicial reforms around the world.  Official development assistance – foreign aid - has grappled with the challenges of improving “the rule of law” through improving economic growth and good governance. But the results have usually been underwhelming.  Livingston calls for justice to be positioned more centrally in evolving notions of equitable development.  Building on new evidence from Asia, he argues that there is an imperative to realign these reforms to promote justice as fairness or equity. Fairness is attained through the enablement of rights, which embody the norms of civic wellbeing, whether vested in international, domestic, or customary law. Livingston is Visiting Fellow at the Lauterpacht Centre of International Law, University of Cambridge, and the founding Director of the Centre for Judicial Studies www.educatingjudges.com